Los científicos descubren nueva manera de eliminar la sal del agua

La tecnología podría tener implicaciones masivas para el futuro de nuestra agua potable.

El planeta se está calentando, las industrias están bombeando más agua salada al medio ambiente y cuando las guerras por el agua están sobre nosotros, el agua potable será más valiosa que el oro (usted lo escuchó aquí primero).

Es por eso que la capacidad de desalinizar el agua rápida y fácilmente ha sido un objetivo de los científicos de todo el mundo. Y ahora, un grupo de investigadores de la Universidad de Columbia creen que han encontrado la manera de hacerlo.

El proceso se denomina Extracción por solvente de la temperatura  y está diseñado para purificar salmueras hipersalinas (agua que contiene una alta concentración de sales, lo que hace que sea siete veces más salada que el agua de mar). Este tipo de agua residual es producida por procesos industriales y durante la producción de petróleo y gas, y representa un gran riesgo de contaminación para las aguas subterráneas.

El equipo de investigación, dirigido por Ngai Yin Yip, profesor asistente de ingeniería de tierra e ingeniería ambiental de Columbia Engineering, mezcló un disolvente (teñido en rojo) con una muestra de salmuera hipersalina (teñido en azul).

Parece que los líquidos permanecen separados en el frasco, pero después de calentarlos y luego decantar el solvente rojo en otro frasco para calentar por separado, el equipo se quedó con una capa de agua clara.

Lo más emocionante del proceso son sus implicaciones. El equipo pudo eliminar hasta un 98,4% de la sal, que es comparable al proceso actual "estándar de oro", la ósmosis inversa. Pero a diferencia de la ósmosis inversa u otros métodos de desalinización, este proceso no requiere altas temperaturas o altas presiones, solo un calor de bajo grado de menos de 70 C (158 F).

Y eso lo convierte en un cambio de juego, tanto para el tratamiento de aguas residuales como para crear agua potable apta para el consumo humano.

"TSSE podría ser una tecnología disruptiva", dijo Yip. "Es efectivo, eficiente, escalable y puede ser impulsado de forma sostenible".

tomar

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