Los seres humanos están acelerando la extinción y alterando el mundo natural en un ritmo "sin precedentes"

WASHINGTON - Los seres humanos están transformando los paisajes naturales de la Tierra de manera tan dramática que hasta un millón de especies de plantas y animales están ahora en peligro de extinción, lo que representa una grave amenaza para los ecosistemas de los que las personas de todo el mundo dependen para su supervivencia, una nueva y radical Organización de las Naciones Unidas. La evaluación ha concluido.

El informe de 1.500 páginas, compilado por cientos de expertos internacionales y basado en miles de estudios científicos, es el análisis más exhaustivo hasta la fecha de la disminución de la biodiversidad en todo el mundo y los peligros que genera la civilización humana. Un resumen de sus hallazgos , que fue aprobado por representantes de los Estados Unidos y otros 131 países, se publicó el lunes en París. El informe completo será publicado este año.

Sus conclusiones son crudas. En la mayoría de los hábitats terrestres principales, desde las sabanas de África hasta los bosques tropicales de América del Sur, la abundancia promedio de plantas y animales nativos ha disminuido en un 20 por ciento o más, principalmente durante el siglo pasado. Con la población humana superando los 7 mil millones, actividades como la agricultura, la tala, la caza furtiva, la pesca y la minería están alterando el mundo natural a un ritmo "sin precedentes en la historia de la humanidad".

Al mismo tiempo, surgió una nueva amenaza: el calentamiento global se ha convertido en uno de los principales impulsores del declive de la vida silvestre, según la evaluación, al cambiar o reducir los climas locales en que muchos mamíferos, aves, insectos, peces y plantas evolucionaron para sobrevivir. Combinado con las otras formas en que los humanos están dañando el medio ambiente, el cambio climático está empujando a un número creciente de especies, como el tigre de Bengala , más cerca de la extinción.

Como resultado, se proyecta que la pérdida de biodiversidad se acelerará hasta el 2050, particularmente en los trópicos, a menos que los países intensifiquen drásticamente sus esfuerzos de conservación.

Pastoreo de ganado en un tramo de bosque amazónico talado ilegalmente en el estado de Pará, Brasil. En la mayoría de los hábitats terrestres principales, la abundancia promedio de plantas y animales nativos ha disminuido en un 20 por ciento o más, principalmente durante el último siglo. CréditoLalo de Almeida para The New York Times

El informe no es el primero en pintar un retrato sombrío de los ecosistemas de la Tierra. Pero va más allá al detallar la estrecha relación entre el bienestar humano y el destino de otras especies.

"Durante mucho tiempo, la gente simplemente pensó que la biodiversidad era un ahorro para la naturaleza por sí misma", dijo Robert Watson, presidente de la Plataforma Intergubernamental de Ciencia y Política sobre Biodiversidad y Servicios de los Ecosistemas,que realizó la evaluación a solicitud de los gobiernos nacionales. "Pero este informe deja en claro los vínculos entre la biodiversidad y la naturaleza y cosas como la seguridad alimentaria y el agua limpia en los países ricos y pobres".

Un informe anterior del grupo había estimado que, en las Américas, la naturaleza proporciona alrededor de $ 24 billones en beneficios no monetarios para los seres humanos cada año. La selva tropical del Amazonas absorbe inmensas cantidades de dióxido de carbono y ayuda a disminuir el ritmo del calentamiento global. Los humedales purifican el agua potable. Los arrecifes de coral sostienen el turismo y la pesca en el Caribe. Las plantas tropicales exóticas forman la base de una variedad de medicamentos.

Pero a medida que estos paisajes naturales se marchitan y se vuelven menos ricos biológicamente, los servicios que pueden proporcionar a los seres humanos han disminuido.

Los humanos están produciendo más alimentos que nunca, pero la degradación de la tierra ya está dañando la productividad agrícola en el 23 por ciento de la superficie terrestre del planeta, según el nuevo informe. La disminución de las abejas silvestres y otros insectos que ayudan a polinizar las frutas y verduras está poniendo en riesgo hasta 577 mil millones de dólares en la producción anual de cultivos. La pérdida de bosques de manglares y arrecifes de coral a lo largo de las costas podría exponer a más de 300 millones de personas a un mayor riesgo de inundaciones.

Los autores señalan que la devastación de la naturaleza se ha vuelto tan grave que los esfuerzos parciales para proteger especies individuales o establecer refugios de vida silvestre ya no serán suficientes. En su lugar, piden "cambios transformadores" que incluyen reducir el consumo excesivo, reducir la huella ambiental de la agricultura y acabar con la tala ilegal y la pesca.

"Ya no basta con centrarse solo en la política ambiental", dijo Sandra M. Díaz, autora principal del estudio y ecóloga de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba en Argentina. "Necesitamos incorporar consideraciones de biodiversidad en las decisiones de comercio e infraestructura, la forma en que la salud o los derechos humanos se incorporan en todos los aspectos de la toma de decisiones sociales y económicas".

Los científicos han catalogado solo una fracción de los seres vivos, unos 1.3 millones; el informe estima que puede haber hasta 8 millones de especies de plantas y animales en el planeta, la mayoría de ellos insectos. Desde 1500, al menos 680 especies han desaparecido, incluida la tortuga gigante de las islas Galápagos y el zorro volador de Guam.

Aunque expertos externos advirtieron que podría ser difícil hacer pronósticos precisos, el informe advierte sobre una inminente crisis de extinción, con tasas de extinción actualmente decenas a cientos de veces más altas que en los últimos 10 millones de años.

"Las acciones humanas amenazan a más especies con la extinción global ahora que nunca", concluye el informe, estimando que "alrededor de 1 millón de especies ya se enfrentan a la extinción, muchas dentro de décadas, a menos que se tomen medidas".

A menos que las naciones intensifiquen sus esfuerzos para proteger los hábitats naturales que quedan, podrían presenciar la desaparición del 40 por ciento de las especies de anfibios, un tercio de los mamíferos marinos y un tercio de los corales formadores de arrecifes. Según el informe, más de 500,000 especies terrestres no tienen suficiente hábitat natural para asegurar su supervivencia a largo plazo.

En los últimos 50 años, la pérdida de biodiversidad global se debe principalmente a actividades como la tala de bosques para tierras de cultivo, la expansión de carreteras y ciudades, la tala, la caza, la pesca excesiva, la contaminación del agua y el transporte de especies invasoras en todo el mundo.

En Indonesia, el reemplazo del bosque lluvioso por plantaciones de aceite de palma ha devastado el hábitat de los orangutanes en peligro crítico y los tigres de Sumatra. En Mozambique, los cazadores furtivos de marfil ayudaron a matar a casi 7,000 elefantes solo entre 2009 y 2011. En Argentina y Chile, la introducción del castor norteamericano en la década de 1940 ha devastado los árboles nativos (aunque también ha ayudado a otras especies a prosperar, incluido el pájaro carpintero de Magallanes).

En total, las tres cuartas partes de la superficie terrestre del mundo han sido alteradas significativamente por la gente, según el informe, y el 85 por ciento de los humedales del mundo han desaparecido desde el siglo XVIII.

Y como los humanos continúan quemando combustibles fósiles para obtener energía, se espera que el calentamiento global agrave el daño. Según el informe, aproximadamente el 5 por ciento de las especies en todo el mundo están amenazadas con la extinción relacionada con el clima si las temperaturas promedio mundiales aumentan 2 grados centígrados por encima de los niveles preindustriales. (El mundo ya se ha calentado 1 grado.)

"Si el cambio climático fuera el único problema al que nos enfrentábamos, muchas especies probablemente podrían moverse y adaptarse", dijo Richard Pearson, ecólogo del University College de Londres. "Pero cuando las poblaciones ya son pequeñas y pierden diversidad genética, cuando los paisajes naturales ya están fragmentados, cuando las plantas y los animales no pueden moverse para encontrar hábitats recientemente adecuados, tenemos una verdadera amenaza en nuestras manos".

La disminución en el número de especies no solo hará del mundo un lugar menos colorido o maravilloso, anotó el informe. También plantea riesgos para las personas.

Voluntarios recolectaron basura en marzo en un bosque de manglares en Brasil. La pérdida de bosques de manglares y arrecifes de coral a lo largo de las costas podría exponer a más de 300 millones de personas a un mayor riesgo de inundaciones. CréditoAmanda Perobelli / Reuters

Hoy en día, los humanos confían en una cantidad significativamente menor de variedades de plantas y animales para producir alimentos. De las 6,190 razas de mamíferos domesticados que se usan en la agricultura, más de 559 se han extinguido y 1,000 más están amenazadas. Eso significa que el sistema alimentario se está volviendo menos resistente frente a plagas y enfermedades. Y podría volverse más difícil en el futuro producir nuevos cultivos más resistentes y ganado para enfrentar el calor extremo y la sequía que traerá el cambio climático.

"La mayoría de las contribuciones de la naturaleza no son completamente reemplazables", dice el informe. La pérdida de biodiversidad "puede reducir permanentemente las opciones futuras, como las especies silvestres que podrían domesticarse como nuevos cultivos y usarse para el mejoramiento genético".

El informe contiene destellos de esperanza. Cuando los gobiernos han actuado enérgicamente para proteger a las especies amenazadas, como el oryx árabe o la urraca de Seychelles, han logrado evitar la extinción en muchos casos. Y las naciones han protegido más del 15 por ciento de las tierras del mundo y el 7 por ciento de sus océanos mediante la creación de reservas naturales y áreas silvestres.

Aún así, solo una fracción de las áreas más importantes para la biodiversidad han sido protegidas, y muchas reservas naturales hacen cumplir las prohibiciones contra la caza furtiva, la tala o la pesca ilegal. El cambio climático también podría socavar los refugios de vida silvestre existentes al cambiar los rangos geográficos de las especies que actualmente viven en ellos.

Entonces, además de abogar por la expansión de las áreas protegidas, los autores describen una amplia gama de cambios dirigidos a limitar los factores de pérdida de biodiversidad.

Los agricultores y ganaderos tendrían que adoptar nuevas técnicas para cultivar más alimentos en menos tierra . Los consumidores de los países ricos tendrían que desperdiciar menos alimentos y ser más eficientes en el uso de los recursos naturales. Los gobiernos de todo el mundo tendrían que fortalecer y hacer cumplir las leyes ambientales, tomar medidas enérgicas contra la tala y la pesca ilegales y reducir el flujo de metales pesados ​​y aguas residuales no tratadas hacia el medio ambiente.

Los autores también señalan que los esfuerzos para limitar el calentamiento global serán críticos, aunque advierten que el desarrollo de biocombustibles para reducir las emisiones podría terminar dañando la biodiversidad al destruir más los bosques.

 

Un elefante en Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, al pie del monte Kenia, a las afueras de Nairobi. Más de 500,000 especies terrestres no tienen suficiente hábitat natural para asegurar su supervivencia a largo plazo. CréditoTony Karumba / Agencia France-Presse - Getty Images

Nada de esto será fácil, especialmente porque muchos países en desarrollo enfrentan la presión de explotar sus recursos naturales mientras intentan salir de la pobreza.

Sin embargo, al detallar los beneficios que la naturaleza puede proporcionar a las personas y al intentar cuantificar lo que se pierde cuando la biodiversidad se desploma, los científicos detrás de la evaluación esperan ayudar a los gobiernos a lograr un equilibrio más cuidadoso entre el desarrollo económico y la conservación.

"No se puede simplemente decirles a los líderes en África que no puede haber desarrollo y que debemos convertir a todo el continente en un parque nacional", dijo Emma Archer, quien dirigió la evaluación anterior de la biodiversidad en África del grupo. . "Pero podemos demostrar que hay compensaciones, que si no se tiene en cuenta el valor que proporciona la naturaleza, en última instancia, el bienestar humano se verá comprometido".

En los próximos dos años, diplomáticos de todo el mundo se reunirán en varias reuniones en el marco del Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica, un tratado mundial, para discutir cómo pueden intensificar sus esfuerzos para la conservación . Sin embargo, incluso en el escenario más optimista del nuevo informe, hasta el 2050 las naciones del mundo solo frenarán la disminución de la biodiversidad, no la detendrán.

"En este momento", dijo Jake Rice, un científico pesquero que dirigió un informe anterior sobre la biodiversidad en las Américas, "nuestras opciones son todas sobre el control de daños".

 

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