Números de mariposas caen un 84% en Holanda durante 130 años, según un estudio

Las poblaciones de insectos europeos se reducen cuando la agricultura deja 'apenas espacio para la naturaleza'

Las mariposas han disminuido en al menos un 84% en los Países Bajos en los últimos 130 años, según un estudio que confirma la crisis que afecta a las poblaciones de insectos en Europa occidental.

Los investigadores analizaron 120,000 mariposas capturadas por coleccionistas entre 1890 y 1980, así como datos científicos más recientes de más de 2 millones de avistamientos para identificar disminuciones dramáticas en las 71 especies de mariposas nativas del país, 15 de las cuales se han extinguido en el último siglo.

"Estamos bastante seguros de que el verdadero descenso debe ser mucho mayor", dijo Chris van Swaay, de Dutch Butterfly Conservation y uno de los coautores del estudio.

La investigación sigue las advertencias de disminuciones catastróficas de insectos después de que una revisión global calculó que la masa total de insectos estaba disminuyendo en un 2,5% cada año , y un estudio alemán encontró que la abundancia promedio de insectos voladores había disminuido en un 76% durante 27 años .

Desde que comenzó el monitoreo científico de las mariposas británicas en 1976, ha habido una disminución del 77% en los "especialistas del hábitat", que se encuentran solo en ciertas áreas, como los bosques o los pastizales de tiza, mientras que las poblaciones de especies más comunes en todo el campo han Caído en un 46%.

Aunque ninguna especie británica se ha extinguido desde 1979, los conservacionistas están preocupados por la posible desaparición de especies que alguna vez fueron abundantes, incluida la concha de tortuga pequeña (hasta un 75%) y el peinado de letras blancas (93% desde la década de 1970).

Las mediciones de las disminuciones en la vida silvestre generalmente comienzan cuando la recopilación de datos científicos comenzó en la década de 1970, pero Van Swaay dijo que su estudio mostró los peligros del "síndrome basal cambiante", donde las disminuciones solo se identifican desde un punto donde las especies ya están extremadamente agotadas.

Las colecciones históricas apuntan a una disminución drástica en las mariposas antes de que comenzara la medición "científica", aunque Van Swaay dijo que incluso esas colecciones antiguas no revelaron completamente las disminuciones dramáticas porque los recolectores no buscaron especies comunes de mariposas.

Según Van Swaay, la principal razón de la disminución en los Países Bajos fue la agricultura industrial moderna, como se llevó a cabo en las tierras bajas de Europa occidental, que dejó poco espacio para la naturaleza.

“Antes de 1950 o algo así, los pastizales en los Países Bajos se parecían mucho a lo que ahora solo nos queda en algunas reservas naturales: estaban húmedos, tenían muchas flores, estaban ligeramente rozados y cortados solo una o dos veces al año. Esto fue una agricultura de muy baja intensidad.

“Dos décadas después de la década de 1950, el campo fue reconstruido: la tierra fue drenada y sembrada con una especie de pasto, se colocaron grandes cantidades de fertilizante en la tierra y se cortó seis veces al año. No hay espacio para las mariposas, excepto en los bordes de las carreteras y las reservas naturales. El campo está más o menos vacío ".

Las especies que han desaparecido por completo de los Países Bajos incluyen el fritillary de pantano, el blanco de vetas negras y el azul grande.

"Hicimos un lío más grande [que Gran Bretaña]", dijo Van Swaay. Durante un período similar en Gran Bretaña, cinco especies se extinguieron, pero una, el gran azul, se reintrodujo con éxito utilizando orugas de Suecia .

Los Países Bajos conservaron una especie, el gran cobre , que se extinguió en Gran Bretaña. Según Van Swaay, el número de grandes cobres había aumentado en los últimos años debido a que el calentamiento global había ayudado a la mariposa, que se encuentra en el límite norte de su rango natural. De manera similar, las mariposas de borde de madera, como el emperador púrpura y la fritillary lavada con plata, estaban expandiendo su rango en los Países Bajos debido al calentamiento y al resurgimiento en el manejo tradicional de los bosques, como el uso de latas, que permite que la luz solar entre en los bosques. A ambas especies también les va bien en Gran Bretaña.

Según Van Swaay, el estudio, publicado en Biológica Conservación, confirma que "la agricultura industrial simplemente no está dejando espacio para la naturaleza" en la UE y en países desarrollados como los EE. UU.

Él dijo: “Estas son mariposas que son fáciles de ver, pero esto también le sucederá a todo tipo de insectos y animales en el suelo. También les está sucediendo a las aves agrícolas que comen insectos. Va por toda la cadena desde insectos hasta aves y depredadores ".

Durante los próximos dos años, la UE debe diseñar una nueva política agrícola común , que los conservacionistas dicen que tiene incentivos contradictorios para destruir y mejorar la vida silvestre.

Van Swaay dijo: "Hay grandes organizaciones agrícolas que quieren continuar con la forma en que lo han hecho hasta ahora, pero hay un grupo creciente de agricultores que quieren una opinión diferente sobre esto, y hay políticos que quieren cambiar Europa". Con más espacio para la naturaleza y la biodiversidad ".

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