Los científicos crean combustible líquido que puede almacenar la energía del sol por hasta 18 años

No importa cuán abundante o renovable, la energía solar tiene una espina en su costado. Todavía no hay un almacenamiento a largo plazo barato y eficiente para la energía que genera.

La industria solar ha estado enganchada en esta rama por un tiempo, pero solo en el último año, una serie de cuatro documentos ha introducido una nueva solución intrigante.

Científicos en Suecia han desarrollado un fluido especializado, llamado combustible térmico solar, que puede almacenar la energía del sol durante más de una década.

"Un combustible térmico solar es como una batería recargable, pero en lugar de electricidad, se pone la luz del sol y se quita el calor, se activa a pedido", explicó a NBC News un ingeniero de trabajos con estos materiales en el MIT  .

El fluido es en realidad una  molécula en forma líquida en la que los científicos de la Universidad de Tecnología de Chalmers, Suecia, han estado trabajando para mejorar durante más de un año.

Esta molécula está compuesta de carbono, hidrógeno y nitrógeno, y cuando es golpeada por la luz solar, hace algo inusual: los enlaces entre sus átomos se reorganizan y se convierten en una nueva versión energizada de sí misma, llamada isómero.

Como la presa atrapada en una trampa, la energía del sol se captura entre los fuertes enlaces químicos del isómero, y permanece allí incluso cuando la molécula se enfría a temperatura ambiente.

Cuando se necesita la energía, digamos en la noche o durante el invierno, el fluido simplemente se extrae a través de un catalizador que devuelve la molécula a su forma original, liberando energía en forma de calor.

"La energía en este isómero ahora se puede almacenar por  hasta 18 años ", dice uno de los científicos del equipo, los nanomateriales Kasper Moth-Poulsen, de la Universidad de Chalmers.

"Y cuando venimos a extraer la energía y la usamos, obtenemos un aumento de calor que es mayor de lo que nos atrevimos a esperar".

Un prototipo del sistema de energía, colocado en el techo de un edificio universitario, ha puesto a prueba el nuevo fluido y, según los investigadores, los resultados han llamado la atención de numerosos inversores .

Captura de pantalla 2018 11 05 a las 2.56.56 pm(Universidad de Tecnología de Chalmers)

El dispositivo de energía renovable y libre de emisiones está formado por un reflector cóncavo con una tubería en el centro, que rastrea el Sol como una especie de antena parabólica.

El sistema funciona de manera circular . Al bombear a través de tubos transparentes, el fluido se calienta con la luz solar, convirtiendo la molécula norbornadieno en su isómero que atrapa el calor, el cuadriciclano. El fluido se almacena a temperatura ambiente con una pérdida de energía mínima.

Cuando se necesita la energía, el fluido se filtra a través de un catalizador especial que convierte las moléculas de nuevo a su forma original, calentando el líquido a 63 grados Celsius (113 grados Fahrenheit).

La esperanza es que este calor se pueda utilizar para los sistemas de calefacción domésticos, alimentando el calentador de agua de un edificio, el lavaplatos, la secadora de ropa y mucho más, antes de regresar al techo una vez más.

Los investigadores han puesto el fluido a través de este ciclo más de 125 veces, acumulando calor y dejándolo caer sin un daño significativo a la molécula.

"Hemos hecho muchos avances cruciales recientemente, y hoy tenemos un sistema de energía libre de emisiones que funciona todo el año", dice  Moth-Poulsen.

Después de una serie de desarrollos rápidos, los investigadores afirman que su fluido ahora puede contener 250 vatios-hora de energía por kilogramo, lo que es el doble de la capacidad energética de las baterías Powerwall de Tesla, según la NBC.

Pero todavía hay mucho espacio para mejorar. Con las manipulaciones adecuadas, los investigadores creen que pueden obtener aún más calor de este sistema, al menos 110 grados Celsius (230 grados Fahrenheit) más.

"Hay mucho por hacer. Acabamos de hacer que el sistema funcione. Ahora debemos asegurarnos de que todo esté diseñado de manera óptima", diceMoth-Poulsen.

Si todo sale según lo planeado, Moth-Poulsen cree que la tecnología podría estar disponible para uso comercial dentro de 10 años.

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